Cuzco or Cusco (in southern Quechua: Qusqu or Qosqo, pronounced [ˈqo̝s.qɔ]) is a city in southeastern Peru located on the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range, in the Huatanay river basin, a tributary of the Vilcanota. It is the capital of the department of Cusco and, furthermore, as stated in the Peruvian constitution, it is the “historical capital” of the country.
The city, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, is the seventh most populated in Peru, and in 2017 it housed a population of 437 538 inhabitants.
Main Square, from Saqsayhuamán.
Formerly it was the capital of the Inca Empire and one of the most important cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru. During the viceregal era, under the sovereignty of the Hispanic Monarchy, various churches, universities, palaces and Baroque and neoclassical squares were built. These constructions are the attractions that make the city the main tourist destination in the country. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972 and a World Heritage Site in 1983 by Unesco and is often called, due to the large number of monuments it has, the “Rome of America.”